DLI - Albanian Language - General Courses

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Defense Language Institute Albanian  - Image The Albanian General courses contains 18 ebooks that cover a wide variety of topics. The books include:

A SURVEY OF ALBANIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

In presenting this short survey of Albanian language and literature we have attempted to make a synopsis of linguistic studies and literary achievements rather than analyses works of art or ideas and events.

The parts concerning Albanian and its relationship to other Indo-European languages is included in this survey because of the lack of information in English on this subject.

We have succinctly touched upon the period from 1944 to 1964. Because literary achievements in Albanian during this time lean towards Marxism and what is produced could be called "Red Propaganda" and it should be treated as such.

ALBANIAN-AIR FORCE MILITARY TERMINOLOGY

This ebook is a field test edition of the third book in the BCEP Military Glossary series. It contains one list of military terminology(Air Force) in Albanian, their English equivalent, as well as sample sentences and their English translations.

ALBANIAN-AREA STUDIES

This ebook contains a list of reference books that can be used to improve ones knowledge of the Albanian language, history and culture.

ALBANIAN-BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GEGE AND TOSKE DIALECTS

Albanian has two main dialects, Gegé and Toské. Gege is spoken in the North, Toské in the South. Students first learn Gegé: then, after Lesson 90 of the Basic as well as the Aural Comprehension Course, rules governing the Toske dialect are introduced.

This brochure is one element of the materials used. It contains basic rules and emphasizes the phonological and morphological differences between Toské and Gegé. Supplementary pattern drills and written exercises are furnished separately. Students will be taught the contents of this brochure in three days, after which they proceed with Lesson 91 of their Albanian course. Lessons 91-120 are exclusively in the Toské dialect.

ALBANIAN-BASIC RADIO COMMUNICATIONS

This volume of Basic Radio communications has been designed, as a supplement to Volume X, Lessons 111-120, to introduce more Air Force terminology, with emphasis on radio communications.

The volume is divided into five exercises, each of them consisting of a vocabulary, a dictation, and an air-to-ground communication in Albanian and in English. The vocabulary of each exercise is introduced in class by the instructor,
whereupon the student studies it and memorizes it at home, to be able to take the dictation, translate it, and take the
gist of air-to-ground communication, both recorded on tape, of one hour duration. Altogether, there are five reels.

These exercises are drilled during the last period of the 32nd week, right after lesson 120.

ALBANIAN-BASIC SITUATIONS

The purpose of this volume is to provide the student with a vehicle for reviewing the grammar and vocabulary of Lessons 1-120 of the Basic Course and, with practice and the help of new words and idioms,increase his fluency and scope of expression.

The volume contains eleven "situations," numbered A to K, each divided into five sub-situations. Bach sub-situation consists of cartoons, a short description for each frame of the cartoons, and a glossary. The student's task is to enlarge the short descriptions in a homework assignment, and present his work orally and in writing the next morning. Through appropriate questions and answers, the instructor will lead the student to free conversation.

Because of the review and free development aspects of the volume, it is introduced in the final phase of the course for one hour each day.

ALBANIAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Albanian is a separate and independent member of the Indo-European family of languages. As such it is clearly as important for. comparative study as its sister languages Latin, Greek, Slavonic, Lithuanian, etc., with which it shows an approximately equal degree of relationship. Though Albanian contains a large proportion of loan-words from Latin, Ancient Greek, Old Slavonic, Italo-Venetie, Middle and Modern Creek. Middle and Modern Slavonic, and Turkish, as well as a number of interesting words of
"Mediterranean" origin, native moo-European elements predominate.

Gustav Meyer, in his "Etymologisches Woerterbuch der albanesischen Sprache, Strassburg, 189l. discovered only 400 radical words.which were demonstrably of native Indo-European origin. This number can now be multiplied by ?ve at least. Though Meyer is responsible for a number of brilliant interpretations of loan elements in Albanian—he was extremely well-informed linguistically—he never-the-less succeeded in producing a work which might almost be called a Dictionary of Albanian Jargon. Nearly all the Modern Greek and Turkish words admitted into his Dictionary are not used in Albania at all, whereas most of the abundant native material of the language was overlooked by Meyer altogether.

Meyer’s recognition and interpretation of the Indo-European elements of Albanian are at once both naive and inconsistent. It is difficult to see, for instance, how Indo-European palatal k [k’] can produce under similar conditions both 5 (see his interpretation of sjell, sorré, iniiem and sup), and th (see thine, than! and athit), or still worse, how palatal g/gh [g’/g’h] can produce at once d in (lore, dimén, derr, (ill in dhies, dhamb and dhnll‘e', and z in zorré, zot, zjarr and at. The confusion is complete when Meyer tries to see Indo-European initial s in thi, hjek, shin-re, acute and giarpër, a sound which he makes
mysterious! disappear in ct and hot! Even Latin initial 3 takes various shapes (according to Meyer) in the wosz shillbe], siper and theirën. Meyer also makes initial IE d/dh become indiscriminately. Albanian II in dick, dy, duaj, and tilt in dhi, dhjeté and dhashe. His Indo-European "interpretations" are, needless to say, almost worthless.

It need hardly be said that Albanian has developed on perfectly consistent lines from parent IE. The phonological picture is complicated only b an unusually large number of combinative changes and by the loss of internal and ?nal consonants wh/ch tend to make etymological interpretation dif?cult.

While the primary object of this Dictionary is linguistic, it is also designed to serve the larger public who need Albanian for practical purposes. It is completely objective in character. Entries not marked with an initial (see Bibliography) are words gathered from the lips of peasants and others in various parts of Albania during the years 1929--1931, or taken from magazines or pamphlets of no literary importance.

The inclusion of extensive quotations from Albanian literature would have been highly desirable as an aid to clear definition and as illustrations of usage. This would, however, have added enormously both to the cost of the Dictionary-and to the labor of compiling it.

ALBANIAN-EXCERCISES IN GRAMMAR

This volume of Exercises in Grammar has been designed, as a supplement to Volumes II-VI, to reinforce and over learn grammar patterns, with emphasis on case structure, through especially designed sentences. These exercises are drilled during the third period of the morning (for about 10 to 15 minutes; one page at a time) beginning with the 10th week, right after Volume III. The next day the students are required to fill in missing words on the volume Workbook for Exercises in Grammar.

ALBANIAN-GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

This volume of Geography and History has been designed with the following aims:

a. to review grammar and vocabulary of Lessons 1-120 of the Basic Course.
b. to increase, with practice and the help of new words and idioms, the student's fluency and scope of expression.
c. to provide basic historical, political, cultural and geographic information about Albania and certain areas in which

Albanian is spoken, with emphasis on the contemporary scene. Because of the review and development aspects of the volume, it is introduced in the final phase of the course (beginning with the 34th week) for one hour a day, approximately one page at a time. The student's task is to_read the homework assignment and be familiarized with the content; through appropriate questions and answers, the instructor will lead the student to free conversation.

ALBANIAN-GLOSSARY SUPPLEMENT TO DICTIONARY

The only Albanian-English dictionary in existence today was published in 1948 by Stewart. Mann. Since that time, the Albanian language because of the evolution of the language itself and especially because of the natural development of technology, has gained a great wealth in lexicography. .

Faced with the new training requirements which are directed towards the specialized needs of military linguists who should be able to render accurate transcriptions and translations of authentic materials, the compiling of this glossary was a must. Totaling roughly 1700 words and expressions, gathered from all kinds of Albanian publications and broadcasts, the vocabulary given here supplements that of Stewart Mann and presents a good cross-section of the current Albanian spoken and written language.

The words are listed in order of the Albanian alphabet; idiomatic expressions are given, indented, under the main word. The essential grammatical data are provided for all entries.

New words which begin with the letters Ë, Ll, X, Xh, Y and_Zh were not identified and therefore do not appear in the glossary.

ALBANIAN-GLOSSARY

A full glossary of the sections in the Albanian Basic Course.

ALBANIAN-MILITARY INTERPRETING PRACTICE

Practice exercises for speaking Albanian.

ALBANIAN-ORDER OF BATTLE

This guide gives Albanian to English translations of words and phrases needed to give battle orders.


ALBANIAN-SUPPLEMENTARY READER PART 1

Volume 1 (of 2) of passages with which to practice readings for students learning Albanian.

ALBANIAN-SUPPLEMENTARY READER PART 2

Volume 2 (of 2) of passages with which to practice readings for students learning Albanian.

ALBANIAN-VERBS REFERENCE MATERIAL

An explanation of verbs and conjugations in the Albanian language with exercises to practice them.

ALBANIAN-WORD CARDS AIR FORCE

Flashcards for vocabulary in Albanian

ALBANIAN-WORKBOOK FOR EXERCISES IN GRAMMAR

Grammar practice for students learning Albanian.

Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.4 million people all over the world, primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including western Republic of Macedonia, southern Montenegro, Greece and Italy. Albanian is also spoken in centuries-old Albanian-based dialect speaking communities scattered in southern Greece, southern Italy, Sicily, and Ukraine.

Albanian is spoken in: Albania, Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Greece, Italy

Albanian is also called: Gheg, Geg, Gheg, Guegue, Shgip, Shopni

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